Most commonly seen include:
Gambel's oak is the common oak of the Rocky Mountains. It is closely related to White Oak (Quercus alba L.) of the eastern United States. The foliage is browsed by deer and sometimes by livestock. Wild turkeys, squirrels, and other wildlife eat the sweetish acorns. The wood is used mainly for fenceposts or fuel. This species is named for William Gambel (1821-49), a naturalist from Philadelphia.
Tree with rounded crown, often in dense groves; or a thicket-forming shrub.
Height: 20-70' (6-21 m). Diameter: 1-2 1/2' (0.3-0.8 m).
Leaves: 2-6" (5-15 cm) long, 1 1/4-3 1/4" (3-8 cm) wide. Elliptical or oblong, rounded at tip, short-pointed at base; deeply 7- to 11-lobed halfway or more to middle, edges straight or wavy; varying in size, lobing, and hairiness. Shiny dark green and usually hairless above, paler and with soft hairs below; turning yellow and reddish in autumn.
Bark: gray, rough, thick, deeply furrowed or scaly.
Acorns: 1/2-3/4" (12-19 mm) long; egg-shaped, about 1/3 enclosed by deep , thick, scaly cup; 1-2 on short stalk or nearly stalkless; maturing first year.
Further research-- importance of slope, aspect, and microclimate, soils, plant selection (trees, shrubs, annuals, and perennials), hardiness zones, growing season, water restrictions, wildlife issues, and noxious weed ID and control.